Today's Refinery: Refining Details Articles & Notebooks

Advanced Process Control
Today's Refinery Refining Details Advanced Economic Process Control
by: Art Gardner with technical assistance from Randy Allen
Today's most exciting process control systems combine user friendliness of distributed control system (DCS) with low cost and high scalability of programmable logic controller (PLC). According to FRRPS (Fictitious Roving Refinery Problem Solver) such systems meet process, informational and regulatory objectives.

Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Advanced Process Control I
by: Fred Hall, Ravi Jaisinghani, Art Gardner
Traditionally, advanced process control (APC) has been enhanced proportional-integral-derivative (PID) process control that additionally included calculations, logic, dead time, leadlag, nonlinear characterization, sequencing, comparison and timers. Today, APC is frequently applied through multivariable predictive control tools, which control dynamic behavior in addition to steady state. APC has increased refinery profitability by minimizing effects of process upsets, increasing throughput, increasing process yields by 2 % to 5 %, and decreasing energy consumption. In the course of reducing process deviation from set point, APC systems, combined with expert systems and statistical quality control (SQC) / statistical process control (SPC) tools, can diagnose equipment failures, interpret alarm conditions, analyze process operation and evaluate process control design. Underlying these benefits are performance records, which are used in operations problem solving and further control improvements.

Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Advanced Process Control II
by: Steve Finlayson, Fred Hall, Greg Martin, Art Gardner
When refiners receive proposals for process controls that go beyond controlling individual variables and control loops that are self-tuning, they want to know how much benefit they will be receiving for the costs they will incur. Keeping in mind that we are talking about process control that is installed in place or on top of existing, reliable, and familiar process controls. Vendors have offered benefits between $0.05 to $0.50 per barrel of feed obtained from their process control installations on similar refinery processes. Their assumption is that their process control technology will bring the same level of savings to the proposed project. The projected savings sound good, but refiners want an explanation of how their process control will provide savings and to understand what they will be getting that they already do not have.

HF Alkylation
Extending HF Alkylation Unit Run Lengths
Fluoride Recovery
Maximizing Alkylate Octane
Toubleshooting HF Feed Contaminants
Internal & External HF Acid Regeneration
Comparison With Sulfuric Acid Alkylation

Sulfuric Alkylation
Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Runaways - Case Histories
Laboratory Versus Field Results
Operating Conditions For Best Yields
Operating Conditions For Worst Yields
Maintaining Sulfuric Acid Strength
Comparison With HF Alkylation

Amine Treating
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Amine Treating I
by: Tom Kenney, Bruce Scott, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Amine Treating II
by: Tim Armstrong, Art Gardner

Catalytic Cracking
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Fluid Catalytic Cracking I
by: Steve Yanik, Art Gardner, Grace Davidson
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Fluid Catalytic Cracking II Recent Improvements
by: Marty Bienstock, Ahmad Haidari, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Fluid Catalytic Cracking III FCC Improvements
by Art Gardner with contributions from Mark Schmaith

Catalytic Reforming
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Catalytic Reforming
by: Charles S McCoy, DeanEdgar, Arthur S Gardner

Flares
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Flares I
by: Larry Fanning, Jim Franklin, John Moorehouse, Walter Swander, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Deflagration And Detonation Arrestors
by: Art Gardner with technical assistance from John F Straitz III
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Flares II
by: Larry Fanning, John Moorehouse, Lance Smith, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Minimizing Noise, Light, Thermal Radiation And Emissions From Flares
by Art Gardner with technical assistance from John F Straitz III

Heavy Oil Refining
Today's Refinery Refining Details Make Old Oil Like New
by: Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Heavy Oil Refining
by: Art Gardner

Hydrocracking
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Hydrocracking I
by: David Law, Mark Peterson, Ron Venner, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Hydrocracking II
by: Richard Foley, Safa George, David Law, Louis Scotti, David Ulmer, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Hydrocracking Cracking With Catalyst - FCC
by: Art Gardner

Sour Water Stripping
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Sour Water Stripping
by: Tim Armstrong, Bruce Scott, Kin Taylor, Art Gardner

Sulfur Recovery
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Sulfur Recovery I Claus Unit
by: Johnny Johnson, Bruce Scott, David Ulmer, Art Gardner
Sulfur Recovery Letters To The Editor
Letter by: T R Armstrong, Reply by: Editor
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Sulfur Recovery II Tail Gas Cleaning
by: Tim Armstrong, Bill Echt, Johnny Johnson, Tom Kenney, Art Gardner
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Sulfur Recovery III Oxygen In Claus Units
by: Lisa Paszkowski, Art Gardner

Water Treatment For Reuse
Today's Refinery Refining Details Notebook Water Treatment For Reuse
by: Paul Puckorius, John Tiangco, Art Gardner